Guide to the Butterflies of the Malayan, Each year from May to September the Toronto Zoo imports thousands of. butterfly pupae from the Philippines and Malaysia More than 30 species of. butterflies will fly around the Malayan Woods each summer though they are not. always the same species as previous years Since 1995 the Toronto Zoo has. displayed a total of 65 tropical butterfly species in the Malayan Woods. Our butterflies are farmed by members of the local communities The farms allow. those who participate to earn more than triple the income they would through more. traditional jobs that destroy the rainforest The people in these communities learn. that there is more value in preserving the forest than cutting it. These farmers raise butterflies by planting native plants for caterpillars to eat and. butterflies to drink from They also control predation by putting netting over the. farm to keep birds lizards and small mammals out By breeding large numbers of. butterflies in lieu of collecting them from their ever shrinking native habitats. butterfly farms reduce the risk to butterfly populations from over collection. The following pages hope to provide the information necessary to permit interested. volunteers and staff to identify the common and some uncommon butterflies we. bring into the Malayan Woods There will also be sufficient information to identify. the pupae The guide also provides a list of food plants for the larvae of each. Photo Credits, Most of the photographs in this guide were taken by Toronto Zoo Volunteer Ken. Ardill The following pictures are exceptions,John Urquhart Tirumala spp top view. Vindula dejone top view of female,Papilio palinurus underside view. Graphium doson top view of male and female and side view of. Nicole Richards Hebomia glaucippe side view, Papilio polytes morph with red spots top and side view. Ian McIntosh Graphium agamemnon top and side view, The Pieridae family includes the whites and the sulphurs These small. butterflies tend to be less dazzling usually being dominantly one colour and. having few subtle markings Perhaps for this reason we receive only a. small number of species from this group in the Malayan Woods. Striped Albatross Appias libythea, The striped albatross became common in Malaysia and Singapore about 50 years ago. due to one of its larval food plants the wild cat s whisker Cleome ciliata becoming. popular in gardens, The striped albatross gets its name from the male butterfly above left which is white. with prominent black veins on the underside of its wings The female s veins above. right are less prominent and the undersides of her wings are dusted with yellow The. acute angle formed at the apex of the forewing distinguishes this genus. The Grass Yellow Eurema hecabe, The grass yellow is the commonest butterfly in the. eastern tropics The wings are yellow with black, bordering on the upperside The markings beneath are. blackish brown There is wide variation in the intensity of. the yellow and the thickness of the black border,The grass yellow s pupa is small and green and. darkens as the adult gets ready to emerge This pupa. has a large hump on the backside that makes it distinct. from other species,The Great Orange Tip Hebomoia glaucippe. The great orange tip is the largest Malayan Pierid The forewing is longer than 40 mm. The upper surfaces of the wings are white The apex of forewing has a large orange. triangular patch outlined with black Females are darker and have a series of black. spots near the edge of the hindwing, The great orange tip s pupa is initially a pale green and changes to pale yellow as it. matures It is medium sized and has a row of small black spots on each side as well as. a black patch in the middle,The Lemon Emigrant Catopsilia pomona. The lemon emigrant is a medium sized Pierid It gets its name from the colour of its. wings and its habit of migrating across its range The undersides of the wings are pale. green with one or two silvery spots in the centre of each hindwing and forewing The. upperside of the butterfly is pale yellow with a small number of black spots and dark. border at the apex of the wing,The lemon emigrant s pupa not. shown here is pale green and,tapers to a point at both ends. It also has a light yellow line,running down each side and. down the midline,Nymphalidae, The Nymphalids are a large family of around 6 000 species Most Nymphalids are. medium to large sized butterflies, Nymphalids are also known as the brush footed or four footed butterflies This is. because their forelegs are underdeveloped and covered in long hairs They cannot. be used for walking and their actual function if any is unclear. Do to recent genetic analysis the Danaids are now considered to be a subfamily of. the Nymphalids and not a family of its own Now known as the Danainae the. milkweed butterflies are large brightly coloured butterflies who use their colours to. advertise their bad taste to predators who quickly learn not to eat them. Some members of this family are able to overwinter as adults and migrate for long. distances The monarch Danaus plexippus is a well known example of a migratory. The Plain Tiger Danaus chryssipus, The plain tiger tastes very bad to predators It flies slowly and gently near the ground. to maximize its visibility to predators Young predators might taste this butterfly but will. quickly learn to avoid those colours To avoid death by this mistaken predation the. plain tiger has evolved very leathery wings that withstand more wear than other. species The upperside of the wings are orange The veins on the upperside of the. wings are not blackened The forewing apex has a broad black border bearing a series. of conjoined white spots, The pupa of the plain tiger is about 2 cm tall Initially it is pale green and turns cream as. it matures It has a bright gold ring around it throughout. The Spotted Black Crow Euploea crameri, This species has the uncommon combination of being distasteful to predators and. having dull colouration The spotted black crow s wings are blackish brown above with. two rows of small white spots On the underside of the forewing starting from the apex. and moving along the edge of the wing there are 3 small spots on the top of the. forewing 2 much larger spots further down and finally 3 more spaced small spots. Closer to the edge of the wing is a row of small white spots. The spotted black crow s pupa is smooth and creamy pink It has lots of iridescent gold. and sliver patches all over,Dark Blue Tiger Tirumala spp. The genus of butterflies containing the dark blue tiger has a number of very similar. species Shown below are two distinct species that arise from nearly identical pupae. The top two pictures are one species and the bottom two pictures are another Both. species have some degree of pale blue stripes and rows of spots along the edges of. the wings The upper species has long thin stripes and the lower species has thicker. folded stripes and a red patch across the top edge of the forewing. The dark tiger s pupa looks similar to pupae in the genus Danaus. which includes the monarch butterfly It is pale green and small. with metallic spots The main difference between Tirumala pupae. and Danaus pupae is that the metallic band across the widest part. of the pupa is all one colour in Tirumala and is composed of three. parallel colours in Danaus,Wood Nymph Ideopsis juventa. The genus Ideopsis is very similar to the genus Radena Many taxonomists consider. them to be the same genus while others do not Ideopsis juventa is similar to both. genera and has therefore been called Radena juventa in some literature Either is. acceptable though we use Ideopsis as it is more common in the literature. The wood nymph pupa is very small and bright yellow It has a row of black spots at the. widest part of the pupa and four black spots lower down around the centre. Paper Kite Idea leuconoe, The paper kite is a large white butterfly It has translucent wings with a yellow tint. especially near the body Its body is predominantly white with a black band down the. length of its body In the middle of the hindwing is a series of large black spots The. underside of the wings looks the same as the upperside. The paper kite s pupa is very distinct It is large and heavy compared to other pupae. bright yellow and has many black spots,The Great Eggfly Hypolimnas bolina. The great eggfly is an unusual because the females fly around the leaves they lay their. eggs on to guard them from predators Neither sex has a tail The underside of the. hindwing has a white band across the middle Males have a large bluish white spot on. the upperside of each forewing and hindwing Females have a line of M shaped spots. forming a band along the edge of the forewings and hindwings Just inside this is a. series of small white spots, The great eggfly s pupa is medium sized and closely. resembles those of the genus Precis but is larger and has. more prominent spines,Autumn Leaf Doleschallia bisaltide. The autumn leaf is a beautiful butterfly with soft brown and orange colouring Neither. sex has a tail The underside of the hindwing closely resembles a dead leaf and helps. the autumn leaf camouflage during its late summer emergence The apex of the. upperside of the wings is black with an orange bar The rest of the upperside is pale. orange colour, The autumn leaf s pupa is light tan in colour It has many small dark brown freckles. and three dark brown lines lower down,The Cruiser Vindula dejone. Male and female cruiser s look strikingly different Male cruiser s have bright orange. upper wings with lines of dark brown bars and for eyespots on the hindwings Female. cruiser s share the four eyespots but little else They have a wide bright white band. across the centre of the upper wings and the rest of the upper wings are light purple. Both sexes have a dagger like tail, The cruiser s pupa has an elaborate shape It has two small projections at its base. where it attaches to the leaf and two large arm like projections coming from its sides. The pupa is light brown and has many emerald green spots along its body. Red Lacewing Cethosia biblis, The red lacewing is nearly identical to the leopard lacewing shown below The most. reliable way to distinguish them is that the red lacewing has a white spot in the black. apex of the upper forewing whereas the leopard lacewing has a white band across. the apex Both species are orange on the upperside with a thick black outline They. are orange with white and sometimes blue bands and black markings on the. The red lacewing s pupa cannot be distinguished from the leopard lacewing s Both. pupa are yellowish tan in colour Both have numerous projections with two prominent. projections at the lower hanging end of the pupa They also have shiny gold spots on. the lower half of the pupa and black spots on the upper half. Leopard Lacewing Cethosia cyane, The leopard lacewing is nearly identical to the red lacewing shown above The most. reliable way to distinguish them is that the leopard lacewing has a white band across. the black apex of the upper forewing whereas the red lacewing has a white spot in the. apex Both species are orange on the upperside with a thick black outline They are. orange with white and sometimes blue bands and black markings on the underside. The leopard lacewing s pupa cannot be distinguished from the red lacewing s Both. pupa are yellowish tan in colour Both have numerous projections with two prominent. projections at the lower hanging end of the pupa They also have shiny gold spots on. the lower half of the pupa and black spots on the upper half. Common Sergeant Athyma perius, The common sergeant is very similar to the common sailor The upperside of the. common sergeant s wings is black with 3 rows of large white spots Each spot in the. last row has a small black dot on it which are also visible on the underside of the. wings The underside is orange with the same white spots that are partially outlined by. black Both sexes of the common sergeant look the same. The common sergeant s pupa closely resembles that of the common sailor The. sergeant s pupa is a darker golden brown with larger gold markings The projections. are much more pronounced on the sergeant s pupa,Common Sailor Neptis hylas. The common sailor is very similar in appearance to the common sergeant The. upperside of the common sailor s wings is black with 3 rows of large white spots. There are no black dots in the third row of white spots The underside is orange with. the same white spots that are partially outlined by black Both sexes of the common. sailor look the same, The common sailor s pupa closely resembles that of the common sergeant The. sailor s pupa is a light golden brown with smaller gold markings The projections are. shorter and rounder on the sailor s pupa,The Archduke Lexias pardalis. The archduke is a rather distinct butterfly,Both sexes have a brilliant orange. underside On the top of the wings males,below left are mostly black with a row of. small orange spots along the front edge of,the forewing and bright blue along the. base of the hindwing Females below,right have at least 5 rows of white spots. on the black upperside of their wings,The Peacock Pansy Precis almana. The peacock pansy is one of several species of Precis housed at the Zoo This. species can be distinguished by its pale orange wings with very large eyespots These. spots can be revealed to startle a potential predator giving the peacock pansy a. chance to escape The peacock pansy also has three black lines outlining the edges of. its wings and four black bands on the front edge of its forewings. The pupae of the genus Precis cannot be distinguished by the naked eye The. peacock pansy s pupa like the other Precis species is light brown with several rows of. small spiky bumps,The Grey Pansy Precis atitles, The grey pansy is one of several species of Precis housed at the Zoo This species. can be distinguished by its grey wings with medium sized eyespots Two eyespots on. each wing are orange and black instead of white and black The grey pansy s. underside is pale almost white with a black line running along the middle of the wings. It has two pairs of black lines on the front edge of its forewings. The pupae of the genus Precis cannot be distinguished by the naked eye The grey. pansy s pupa like the other Precis species is light brown with several rows of small. spiky bumps,The Chocolate Pansy Precis iphita, The chocolate pansy is one of several species of Precis housed at the Zoo This. species can be distinguished by its chocolate brown wings with small eyespots The. chocolate pansy s colouring alternates between bands of darker and lighter brown It. also has four black bands on the front edge of its forewings The underside of its wings. are a darker chocolate brown with a row of white dots with a light brown border. The pupae of the genus Precis cannot be distinguished by the naked eye The. chocolate pansy s pupa like the other Precis species is light brown with several rows.
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Dalam buku Metode Penelitian oleh Sugiyono (2012:4) mengatakan : Secara umum tujuan penelitian ada tiga macam yaitu bersifat penemuan, pembuktian dan pengembangan. Penemuan berarti data, tindakan dan produk yang diperoleh dari penelitian itu adalah betul-betul baru yang sebelumnya belum pernah ada. Pembuktian berarti data yang diperoleh itu digunakan untuk membuktikan adanya keragu-raguan ...