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CHAPTER 5 RESOURCE MANAGER, National Science State Local Reproducible Masters Transparencies. Content Standards Standards, UCP 1 UCP 2 A 1 A 2 1 A 2 B 2 E 3 C Study Guide for Content Mastery Section Focus. B 1 B 6 G 1 G 2 G 3 3 E 5 A pp 25 26 L2 Transparency 17 L1 ELL. ChemLab and MiniLab Teaching,Worksheets pp 17 20 L2 Transparency 15 L2 ELL. Math Skills P,Transparency 5 L2 ELL, UCP 1 UCP 2 A 2 B 1 3 A 3 C 3 E 5 A Study Guide for Content Mastery Section Focus PLS. B 6 G 2 G 3 6 A pp 27 28 L2 Transparency 18 L1P,Laboratory Manual pp 33 36 L2 Teaching. Challenge Problems p 5 L3 Transparency 16 PL2 ELL, UCP 1 UCP 2 A 1 A 2 1 A 2 A 2 B 2 C Study Guide for Content Mastery Section Focus. B 1 B 6 E 2 F 6 G 2 2 D 2 E 3 D 3 E pp 29 30 LS,L2 Transparency 19 L1 ELL. G 3 5 A 6 A 8 A Laboratory Manual LS Teaching,pp 37 40 L2. Transparency 17 LS, Key to National Science Content Standards UCP Unifying Concepts P. Processes A Science as Inquiry B Physical Science C Life Science. D Earth and Space Sciences E Science and Technology. F Science in Personal and Social Perspectives G History and Nature of Science LS. Refer to pages 4T 5T of the Teacher Guide for an explanation of the. National Science Content Standards correlations,CHAPTER 5 Electrons in Atoms. Resource Manager,Materials List,ChemLab pages 142 143. 40 W tubular light bulb light socket with power cord spectrum tubes hydrogen neon and. mercury spectrum tube power supplies 3 Flinn C Spectra diffraction grating colored pencils. food coloring red green blue and yellow 275 mL polystyrene culture flasks 4 book water. Discovery Lab page 117,wrapped box containing small object. MiniLab page 125, Bunsen burner cotton swabs 6 distilled water lithium chloride sodium chloride. potassium chloride calcium chloride strontium chloride unknown. Demonstration pages 136 137, spectrum tubes hydrogen and neon spectrum tube power supply Flinn C Spectra. diffraction grating colored pencils or chalk,Preparation of Solutions. For a review of solution preparation see page 46T of the Teacher Guide. There are no solutions to be prepared for the activities in this chapter. Assessment Resources Additional Resources,Chapter Assessment pp 25 30 Spanish Resources ELL. MindJogger Videoquizzes Guided Reading Audio Program Chapter 5 ELL. Alternate Assessment in the Science Classroom Cooperative Learning in the Science Classroom. TestCheck Software Lab and Safety SkillsP in the Science Classroom. Solutions Manual Chapter 5 Lesson Plans P, Supplemental Problems Chapter 5 Block Scheduling Lesson Plans. Performance Assessment in the Science Classroom Texas Lesson Plans LS. Chemistry Interactive CD ROM Chapter 5 quiz Texas Block Scheduling Lesson Plans LS. CHAPTER 5 RESOURCE MANAGER,Glencoe Technology, The following multimedia for this chapter are available from Glencoe. VIDEOTAPE DVD CD ROM, MindJogger Videoquizzes Chemistry Matter and Change. Chapter 5 Flame Test Video,VIDEODISC The Aurora Video. Cosmic Chemistry Atomic Emissions Video, Greenhouse Effect Movie Electrons and Energy Levels Animation. Albert Einstein Still Building Atoms Exploration,Niels Bohr Still. Atomic Theories Movie,Louis Victor de Broglie Still. Bohr de Broglie Hydrogen Orbits Still,Multiple Learning Styles. Look for the following icons for strategies that emphasize different learning modalities. Kinesthetic Linguistic, Building a Model p 123 Meeting Individual Chemistry Journal pp 119 122 140 Portfolio. Needs pp 127 139 Quick Demo p 131 p 133,Visual Spatial Logical Mathematical. Portfolio p 118 Chemistry Journal p 133 Meeting Individual Needs p 128. Reteach p 141,Intrapersonal,English Language Learners p 121 Enrichment. p 122 Meeting Individual Needs p 131 Chemistry,Journal p 129. Key to Teaching Strategies Assessment Planner, L1 Level 1 activities should be appropriate for students with Portfolio Assessment Knowledge Assessment. learning difficulties Portfolio TWE pp 118 120 Assessment TWE pp 126. L2 Level 2 activities should be within the ability range of 133 145 134. all students Assessment p 139 Section Assessment SE. Performance Assessment pp 126 134 141, L3 Level 3 activities are designed for above average students Chapter Assessment SE. Assessment TWE pp 122, ELL ELL activities should be within the ability range of 128 pp 146 149. English Language Learners MiniLab SE p 125 Skill Assessment. COOP LEARN Cooperative Learning activities are designed ChemLab SE pp 142 143 Assessment TWE p 141. P small group work, for Discovery Lab SE p 117 Problem Solving Lab TWE. P These strategies represent student products that can be ChemLab TWE p 143. placed into a best work portfolio,Demonstration TWE p 137. LS These strategies are useful in a block scheduling format. Tying to Previous,Have students review the following. Electrons in Atoms,concepts before studying this,chapter What You ll Learn. Chapter 4 atomic structure You will compare the wave. and particle models of light,Using the Photo You will describe how the. frequency of light emitted, Point out that the vivid colors of by an atom is a unique. light given off by fireworks are characteristic of that atom. of different origin than colors,You will compare and con. produced by colored light bulbs or trast the Bohr and quantum. mechanical models of the,filters Explain that energy transi atom. tions within atoms cause the You will express the, distinctive colors something that arrangements of electrons. students will learn more about in in atoms through orbital. the chapter notations electron configu,rations and electron dot. structures,Chapter Themes,The following themes from the. Why It s Important,Why are some fireworks red, National Science Education some white and others blue. Standards are covered in this The key to understanding the. chapter Refer to page 4T of the chemical behavior of fire. Teacher Guide for an explanation works and all matter lies in. understanding how electrons,of the correlations are arranged in atoms of each. Systems order and organization element,Evidence models and explanation. Form and function UCP 5,Visit the Chemistry Web site at. science glencoe com to find,links about electrons and atomic. The colorful display from fire,works is due to changes in the. electron configurations of atoms,116 Chapter 5,Purpose Teaching Strategies Expected Results. Students will make observations using all Try to use objects in the box that are Results will vary Students should try to. the senses except sight simple but challenging use senses other than sight to determine. LS When students are through with the the relative size mass shape and. Safety and Disposal lab you may want to identity the number of objects. Keep boxes for use next year objects or to demonstrate that. chemists can t always see what they are Analysis, looking for you may want to leave the Answers will vary Students will deter. object s identity a mystery mine that observations typically rely. heavily upon sight although touch and,hearing are somewhat useful. DISCOVERY LAB Section 5 1,What s Inside, t s your birthday and there are many wrapped presents for you to 1 Focus. I open Much of the fun is trying to figure out what s inside the. package before you open it In trying to determine the structure of Focus Transparency. the atom chemists had a similar experience How good are your. skills of observation and deduction Before presenting the lesson display. Section Focus Transparency 17,1 Obtain a wrapped box from your instructor. on the overhead projector Have,students answer the accompanying. 2 Using as many observation methods as you can and without. unwrapping or opening the box try to figure out what the object. questions using Section Focus, Materials inside the box is Transparency Master 17 L1. a wrapped box from your 3 Record the observations you make throughout this discovery ELL. instructor process, How were you able to determine things such as size shape number P Focus Transpare. 17 Light Wav, and composition of the object in the box What senses did you use es. to make your observations Why is it hard to figure out what type of Chapter. object is in the box without actually seeing it,Section 5 1 Light and Quantized Energy. aw Hill Comp,of the McGr,Objectives,a division, Although three subatomic particles had been discovered by the early 1900s. Compare the wave and par the quest to understand the atom and its structure had really just begun That. Glencoe Mc, ticle models of light quest continues in this chapter as scientists pursued an understanding of how What ma. 2 What ot a rainbow, electrons were arranged within atoms Perform the DISCOVERY LAB on of wave. Define a quantum of, this page to better understand the difficulties scientists faced in researching. energy and explain how,the unseen atom Chemistry,it is related to an energy Matter and. change of matter Section,Focus Tran,The Nuclear Atom and Unanswered Questions. sparencies,Contrast continuous electro, magnetic spectra and As you learned in Chapter 4 Rutherford proposed that all of an atom s pos. atomic emission spectra itive charge and virtually all of its mass are concentrated in a nucleus that. Vocabulary, is surrounded by fast moving electrons Although his nuclear model was a. major scientific development it lacked detail about how electrons occupy. electromagnetic radiation the space surrounding the nucleus In this chapter you will learn how elec Concept Development. wavelength trons are arranged in an atom and how that arrangement plays a role in. Explain that the concept that matter,frequency chemical behavior. amplitude Many scientists in the early twentieth century found Rutherford s nuclear is made up of atoms is useful in. electromagnetic spectrum atomic model to be fundamentally incomplete To physicists the model did many ways For example the fact. quantum not explain how the atom s electrons are arranged in the space around the that water contains two atoms of. Planck s constant nucleus Nor did it address the question of why the negatively charged elec hydrogen for every atom of oxygen. photoelectric effect trons are not pulled into the atom s positively charged nucleus Chemists explains why the masses of the two. photon found Rutherford s nuclear model lacking because it did not begin to account. atomic emission spectrum elements are always in the same. for the differences in chemical behavior among the various elements. proportion in the compound Point,out however that something well. 5 1 Light and Quantized Energy 117,beyond this concept must account. for the vastly different chemical,behaviors of hydrogen oxygen. Resource Manager and the other chemical elements,Study Guide for Content. Mastery pp 25 26 L2,Solving Problems A Chemistry,Handbook Section 5 1. Section Focus Transparency 17,and Master L1 ELL Pages 116 117. Quick Demo,Demonstrate that unlike,charges attract using the. following materials which can,probably be obtained from. your school s physics depart,ment a hard rubber rod. either a piece of cat hide with,the fur attached or a piece of. wool a glass rod a piece of,synthetic fabric such as nylon a b c. Use a Y shaped piece of string,to suspend the rubber rod Figure 5 1. horizontally from a support a Chlorine gas shown here. For example consider the elements chlorine argon and potassium which. Impart a negative charge to reacting vigorously with steel. wool reacts with many other, are found in consecutive order on the periodic table but have very different. the rod by rubbing it with fur atoms as well b Argon gas fills chemical behaviors Atoms of chlorine a yellow green gas at room temper. Then impart a positive charge the interior of this incandescent ature react readily with atoms of many other elements Figure 5 1a shows. to the glass rod by rubbing it bulb The nonreactive argon chlorine atoms reacting with steel wool The interaction of highly reactive. with synthetic fabric When prevents the hot filament from chlorine atoms with the large surface area provided by the steel results in a. oxidizing thus extending the, you bring the glass rod close to life of the bulb c Solid potas. vigorous reaction Argon which is used in the incandescent bulb shown in. the suspended rubber rod the sium metal is submerged in oil Figure 5 1b also is a gas Argon however is so unreactive that it is consid. rubber rod will move toward to prevent it from reacting with ered a noble gas Potassium is a reactive metal at room temperature In fact. the glass rod Explain that the air or water as you can see in Figure 5 1c because potassium is so reactive it must be. rods unlike charges cause the stored under kerosene or oil to prevent its atoms from reacting with the oxy. attraction Point out that an gen and water in the air Rutherford s nuclear atomic model could not explain. atom s positively charged why atoms of these elements behave the way they do. In the early 1900s scientists began to unravel the puzzle of chemical. nucleus exerts the same type, behavior They had observed that certain elements emitted visible light when. of electrostatic, P attraction heated in a flame Analysis of the emitted light revealed that an element s. for its negatively charged, chemical behavior is related to the arrangement of the electrons in its atoms. electrons In order for you to better understand this relationship and the nature of atomic. structure it will be helpful for you to first understand the nature of light. Go to the Chemistry Interactive Wave Nature of Light. CD ROM to find additional Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behav. resources for this chapter, ior as it travels through space Visible light is a type of electromagnetic radia. tion Other examples of electromagnetic radiation include visible light from the. sun microwaves that warm and cook your food X rays that doctors and den. VIDEODISC tists use to examine bones and teeth and waves that carry radio and television. programs to your home,Cosmic Chemistry, All waves can be described by several characteristics a few of which you. Disc 4 Side 8 may be familiar with from everyday experience Figure 5 2a shows a stand. Movie Greenhouse ing wave created by rhythmically moving the free end of a spring toy. Effect 1 00 min Figure 5 2b illustrates several primary characteristics of all waves wave. Examination of this length frequency amplitude and speed Wavelength represented by the. chemical phenomenon Greek letter lambda is the shortest distance between equivalent points on a. continuous wave For example in Figure 5 2b the wavelength is measured. bs eQa from crest to crest or from trough to trough Wavelength is usually expressed. in meters centimeters or nanometers 1 nm 1 10 9 m Frequency rep. resented by the Greek letter nu is the number of waves that pass a given. 118 Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms,Classical Physics and Electrons in Atoms. Visual Spatial Have students research explanations and diagrams in their portfo. and explain how electrons in atoms lios Negatively charged electrons orbiting. should behave according to classical physics the nucleus should spiral into the. Have them draw diagrams illustrating their tively charged nucleus giving off energy. findings Students should include their in the process L2 ELL P. Quick Demo,Wavelength Crest,Project the beam from a high. Amplitude intensity projector into the side,of a large beaker of water. Darken the room and adjust,the arrangement so students. Wavelength Trough,can see the visible portion of,a b the electromagnetic spectrum. on a wall or screen Explain,Figure 5 2 that reflection and refraction. point per second One hertz Hz the SI unit of frequency equals one wave a The standing wave produced separate the component colors. per second In calculations frequency is expressed with units of waves per with this spring toy displays of white light from the. second 1s or s 1 where the term waves is understood For example properties that are characteristic. projector as they pass through,of all waves b The primary. 652 Hz 652 waves second 65 2 652 s 1 characteristics of waves are the beaker and water Point out. s wavelength frequency ampli that rainbows are formed in. The amplitude of a wave is the wave s height from the origin to a crest or tude and speed What is the much the same manner when. from the origin to a trough To learn how lightwaves are able to form pow wavelength of the wave in. centimeters the colors in sunlight separate, erful laser beams read the How It Works at the end of this chapter as they are reflected and. All electromagnetic waves including visible light travel at a speed of refracted by raindrops. 3 00 108 m s in a vacuum Because the speed of light is such an important. and universal value it is given its own symbol c The speed of light is the. product of its wavelength and its frequency LS,Figure Caption Questions. Figure 5 2 What is the wavelength, Although the speed of all electromagnetic waves is the same waves may of the wave in centimeters. have different wavelengths and frequencies As you can see from the equa. tion above wavelength and frequency are inversely related in other words. as one quantity increases the other decreases To better understand this rela Figure 5 3 Which wave has the. tionship examine the red and violet light waves illustrated in Figure 5 3 larger amplitude The red wave. Although both waves travel at the speed of light you can see that red light has a larger amplitude. has a longer wavelength and lower frequency than violet light. Sunlight which is one example of what is called white light contains a con. tinuous range of wavelengths and frequencies Sunlight passing through a prism. wavelength,Lower frequency Figure 5 3,Shorter The inverse relationship. wavelength between wavelength and fre,quency of electromagnetic. waves can be seen in these red,and violet waves As wavelength. increases frequency decreases,Wavelength and frequency do. not affect the amplitude of a,wave Which wave has the. Higher frequency larger amplitude,5 1 Light and Quantized Energy 119. Resource Manager CHEMISTRY JOURNAL,Frequencies and Daily Living. Math Skills Transparency 5 and Linguistic In order to reinforce the. Master L2 ELL concept of frequency have students,think of and describe at least five phe. nomena they encounter that recur or,occur at given frequencies in their daily. P Pages 118 119,lives Have them describe these,ena in their journals and when possible 3 C 3 E. quantify the frequencies,Figure 5 4 is separated into a continuous. Quick Demo White light is separated into a spectrum of colors These are. continuous spectrum when it the colors of the visible spec. passes through a prism trum The spectrum is called. Borrow a Slinky from the,continuous because there is no. physics department and attach portion of it that does not cor. it securely to an object on one respond to a unique wave. side of the room Demonstrate length and frequency of light. wave characteristics You are already familiar with. wavelength frequency and all of the colors of the visible. energy by generating spectrum from your everyday, standing waves Start with a experiences And if you have. half wave showing the longest ever seen a rainbow you have. wavelength lowest frequency seen all of the visible colors at. and least energy Work up to once A rainbow is formed. two or two and one half when tiny drops of water in the. standing waves It will be air disperse the white light from the sun into its component colors producing a. obvious that you must use continuous spectrum that arches across the sky. more energy as the number of The visible spectrum of light shown in Figure 5 4 however comprises only. standing waves increases With a small portion of the complete electromagnetic spectrum which is illustrated. in Figure 5 5 The electromagnetic spectrum also called the EM spectrum. each increase in the number of, encompasses all forms of electromagnetic radiation with the only differences. waves ask students what is, in the types of radiation being their frequencies and wavelengths Note in. happening to frequency and Figure 5 4 that the short wavelengths bend more than long wavelengths as they. wavelength and how energy pass through the prism resulting in the sequence of colors red orange yellow. is changing Frequency is green blue indigo and violet This sequence can be remembered using the fic. increasing wavelength, P is titious name Roy G Biv as a memory aid In examining the energy of the radi. decreasing and energy is ation shown in Figure 5 5 you should note that energy increases with increasing. increasing Figure 5 5 frequency Thus looking back at Figure 5 3 the violet light with its greater. The electromagnetic spectrum frequency has more energy than the red light This relationship between fre. includes a wide range of wave quency and energy will be explained in the next section. LS lengths and frequencies, Figure Caption Question Energy of the radiation increases. with increasing frequency, Figure 5 5 Which types of waves Which types of waves or rays. or rays have the highest energy have the highest energy. gamma rays and X rays,Visible light,Wavelengths in meters. 4 2 6 8 10 12 14,3 10 3 10 3 3 10,3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10. Radio Infrared Ultraviolet Gamma rays,Microwaves X rays. 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22,10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10. Frequency in hertz,Energy increases,Electromagnetic Spectrum. 120 Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms,Portfolio Resource Manager. Electromagnetic Waves and Uses, Have students research and discuss the Teaching Transparency 15 and Master. many ways humans use electromagnetic L2 ELL,waves to transmit information and carry. energy fromP place to place Have them,write up their findings in their portfolios. Because all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed you can use. the formula c to calculate the wavelength or frequency of any wave PROBLEMS. Example Problem 5 1 shows how this is done,Have students refer to Appendix. D for complete solutions to,Practice Problems,EXAMPLE PROBLEM 5 1 1 6 12 1014 s 1. Calculating Wavelength of an EM Wave,2 2 61 1018 s 1. Microwaves are used to transmit information What is the wavelength 3 3 00 108 m s. of a microwave having a frequency of 3 44 109 Hz 4 3 17 m. 1 Analyze the Problem, You are given the frequency of a microwave You also know that. because microwaves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum. their speed frequency and wavelength are related by the formula. Reinforcement, c The value of c is a known constant First solve the equation When the people in a stadium. for wavelength then substitute the known values and solve. make a wave the wave travels,Known Unknown,around the stadium as individual. 3 44 109Hz m,persons move their bodies and,c 3 00 108 m s. arms up and down Point out, 2 Solve for the Unknown however that each person trans. Solve the equation relating the speed frequency and wavelength mitting the wave remains in the. of an electromagnetic wave for wavelength,same place. c Microwave relay antennas are,used to transmit voice and data. Substitute c and the microwave s frequency into the equation Math in Chemistry. from one area to another with,Note that hertz is equivalent to 1 s or s 1. out the use of wires or cables,3 00 108 m s,Explain that when two quantities. 3 44 109 s 1 are related mathematically in such, Divide the values to determine wavelength and cancel units as a way that the increase in one. required quantity is proportional to the,3 00 108 m s. 8 72 10 2 m decrease in the other quantity the,3 44 109 s 1. two quantities are said to be, 3 Evaluate the Answer inversely proportional Point out. The answer is correctly expressed in a unit of wavelength m Both of that the relationship c is valid. the known values in the problem are expressed with three significant. figures so the answer should have three significant figures which it only if the quantities and are. does The value for the wavelength is within the wavelength range inversely related. for microwaves shown in Figure 5 5,PRACTICE PROBLEMS. 1 What is the frequency of green light which has a wavelength of Practic For more practice with. 4 90 10 7 m speed frequency and,wavelength problems. 2 An X ray has a wavelength of 1 15 10 10 m What is its frequency go to Supplemental. 3 What is the speed of an electromagnetic wave that has a frequency Practice Problems in. of 7 8 106 Hz Appendix A, 4 A popular radio station broadcasts with a frequency of 94 7 MHz. What is the wavelength of the broadcast 1 MHz 106 Hz. 5 1 Light and Quantized Energy 121,M EETING I NDIVIDUAL N EEDS. English Language Learners,Intrapersonal Have English language. learners look up and then explain,the meanings of several key English words. used in this section radiation spectrum,constant effect emission Pquantum Then. ask them to use the words in a paragraph,about waves L1 ELL. Assessment Particle Nature of Light, While considering light as a wave does explain much of its everyday behav. Performance Have ior it fails to adequately describe important aspects of light s interactions with. students develop an experiment or matter The wave model of light cannot explain why heated objects emit only. demonstration that illustrates the certain frequencies of light at a given temperature or why some metals emit. quantum concept They might use a electrons when colored light of a specific frequency shines on them Obviously. balance and small objects having a totally new model or a revision of the current model of light was needed to. address these phenomena,nearly equal masses such as paper. clips Or they might use a gradu The quantum concept The glowing light emitted by the hot objects shown. ated cylinder and small objects in Figure 5 6 are examples of a phenomenon you have certainly seen Iron. having nearly equal volumes such provides another example of the phenomenon A piece of iron appears dark. as marbles or ball bearings Use the gray at room temperature glows red when heated sufficiently and appears. bluish in color at even higher temperatures As you will learn in greater detail. Performance Task Assessment List later on in this course the temperature of an object is a measure of the aver. for Designing an Experiment in age kinetic energy of its particles As the iron gets hotter it possesses a. PASC p 23 L2 greater amount of energy and emits different colors of light These differ. ent colors correspond to different frequencies and wavelengths The wave. model could not explain the emission of these different wavelengths of light. Enrichment LS at different temperatures In 1900 the German physicist Max Planck. 1858 1947 began searching for an explanation as he studied the light emit. Intrapersonal Have inter ted from heated objects His study of the phenomenon led him to a startling. ested students research and conclusion matter can gain or lose energy only in small specific amounts. make a class presentation or report called quanta That is a quantum is the minimum amount of energy that can. on the operationP of an optical be gained or lost by an atom. pyrometer a device that measures Planck and other physicists of the time thought the concept of quantized. extremely high temperatures by energy was revolutionary and some found it disturbing Prior experience had. led scientists to believe that energy could be absorbed and emitted in con. the wavelengths of light emitted by, tinually varying quantities with no minimum limit to the amount For exam. the objects L2LS ple think about heating a cup of water in a microwave oven It seems that. you can add any amount of thermal energy to the water by regulating the. Figure 5 6 power and duration of the microwaves Actually the water s temperature. These photos illustrate the increases in infinitesimal steps as its molecules absorb quanta of energy. phenomenon of heated objects Because these steps are so small the temperature seems to rise in a continu. emitting different frequencies of ous rather than a stepwise manner. light Matter regardless of its, The glowing objects shown in Figure 5 6 are emitting light which is a. form can gain or lose energy, only in small quantized form of energy Planck proposed that this emitted light energy was quantized. 122 Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms,CHEMISTRY JOURNAL. What s a Quantum,Linguistic Have students research the. reactions of Planck s contemporaries,to his quantum concept Have them listPand. explain the reactions of Planck s contempo,raries in their chemistry journals L2. Figure 5 7, Electron ejected In the photoelectric effect light. Concept Development, from surface Beam of light of a certain minimum frequency Explain to students that they might. energy ejects electrons from,the surface of a metal. think of the light emitted by an, Metal surface Increasing the intensity of the atom as a window into the atom. incident light results in more Explain further that the chemical. electrons being ejected, Increasing the frequency behaviors of the elements are. energy of the incident light related not to the number of. causes the ejected electrons to subatomic particles in their atoms. travel faster,but to the arrangement of electrons,Electrons Nuclei within their atoms. He then went further and demonstrated mathematically that the energy of a Building a Model. quantum is related to the frequency of the emitted radiation by the equation. Kinesthetic Have student,Equantum h groups build a setup that. models the photoelectric effect, where E is energy h is Planck s constant and is frequency Planck s constant. has a value of 6 626 10 34 J s where J is the symbol for the joule the SI. For example the setup might show, unit of energy Looking at the equation you can see that the energy of radia that impacting small magnets. tion increases as the radiation s frequency increases This equation explains attached to a heavy iron object. why the violet light in Figure 5 3 has greater energy than the red light with lightweight and low energy. According to Planck s theory for a given frequency matter can emit or objects such as marshmallows. absorb energy only in whole number multiples of h that is 1h 2h 3h will not displace the magnets. and so on A useful analogy for this concept is that of a child building a wall. Then the setup could show, of wooden blocks The child can add to or take away height from the wall. only in increments of a whole number of blocks Partial blocks are not pos that heavier objects with greater. sible Similarly matter can have only certain amounts of energy quantities energy displace the magnets Have. of energy between these values do not exist students draw the analogy between. the marshmallows and low energy, The photoelectric effect Scientists knew that the wave model still very pop. ular in spite of Planck s proposal could not explain a phenomenon called the. photons and between the heavier, photoelectric effect In the photoelectric effect electrons called photoelectrons objects and high energy photons. are emitted from a metal s surface when light of a certain frequency shines on L2 ELL COOP LEARN. the surface as shown in Figure 5 7 Perhaps you ve taken advantage of the pho. toelectric effect by using a calculator such as the one shown in Figure 5 8 that Figure 5 8 P. is powered by photoelectric cells Photoelectric cells in these and many other The direct conversion of sun. devices convert the energy of incident light into electrical energy light into electrical energy is a P. The mystery of the photoelectric effect concerns the frequency and there viable power source for low. power consumption devices such, fore color of the incident light The wave model predicts that given enough. time even low energy low frequency light would accumulate and supply as this calculator The cost of LS. enough energy to eject photoelectrons from a metal However a metal will. photoelectric cells makes them,P VIDEODISC, not eject photoelectrons below a specific frequency of incident light For. impractical for large scale power LS Cosmic Chemistry. production, example no matter how intense or how long it shines light with a frequency Disc 1 Side 1. less than 1 14 1015 Hz does not eject photoelectrons from silver But even Still Albert Einstein. dim light having a frequency equal to or greater than 1 14 1015 Hz causes. the ejection of photoelectrons from silver, In explaining the photoelectric effect Albert Einstein proposed in 1905 that. electromagnetic radiation has both wavelike and particlelike natures That is Disc 3 Side 6 and. while a beam of light has many wavelike characteristics it also can be thought Disc 4 Side 8. of as a stream of tiny particles or bundles of energy called photons Thus a. photon is a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a. quantum of energy,5 1 Light and Quantized Energy 123. Internet Address Book, Note Internet addresses that you find useful in the. space below for quick reference,Pages 120 123,3 C 3 E 5 A. Extending Planck s idea of quantized energy Einstein calculated that a pho. PROBLEMS ton s energy depends on its frequency,Have students refer to Appendix Ephoton h. D for complete solutions to, Practice Problems Further Einstein proposed that the energy of a photon of light must have a. certain minimum or threshold value to cause the ejection of a photoelectron. 5 a 4 19 10 13 J That is for the photoelectric effect to occur a photon must possess at a min. b 6 29 10 20 J imum the energy required to free an electron from an atom of the metal. c 6 96 10 18 J According to this theory even small numbers of photons with energy above. the threshold value will cause the photoelectric effect Although Einstein was. 6 a gamma ray or X ray able to explain the photoelectric effect by giving electromagnetic radiation. b infrared particlelike properties it s important to note that a dual wave particle model. of light was required,c ultraviolet,EXAMPLE PROBLEM 5 2. 3 Assess Calculating the Energy of a Photon, Tiny water drops in the air disperse the white light of the sun into a. Check for Understanding rainbow What is the energy of a photon from the violet portion of. Ask students to explain why the rainbow if it has a frequency of 7 23 1014 s 1. chemists found Rutherford s 1 Analyze the Problem, nuclear model of the atom lacking You are given the frequency of a photon of violet light You also. It did not explain or account for know that the energy of a photon is related to its frequency by the. equation Ephoton h The value of h Planck s constant is known By. the differences in the chemical substituting the known values the equation can be solved for the. behavior of the elements energy of a photon of violet light. Known Unknown,7 23 1014 s 1 Ephoton J,h 6 626 10 34 J s. 2 Solve for the Unknown, Substitute the known values for frequency and Planck s constant into. CD ROM the equation relating energy of a photon and frequency. Chemistry Matter,Sunlight bathes Earth in white,and Change Ephoton 6 626 10 34 J s 7 23 1014 s 1. light light composed of all of, Video Flame Test the visible colors of the electro Multiply the known values and cancel units. magnetic spectrum Ephoton 6 626 10 34 J s 7 23 1014 s 1 4 79 10 19 J. Video The Aurora, Video Atomic The energy of one photon of violet light is 4 79 10 19 J. Emissions 3 Evaluate the Answer, The answer is correctly expressed in a unit of energy J The known. value for frequency has three significant figures and the answer also. is expressed with three significant figures as it should be As. expected the energy of a single photon of light is extremely small. Manager PRACTICE PROBLEMS, ChemLab and MiniLab Practic For more practice 5 What is the energy of each of the following types of radiation. Worksheets p 17 L2 with photon energy, problems go to a 6 32 1020 s 1 b 9 50 1013 Hz c 1 05 1016 s 1. Supplemental Practice 6 Use Figure 5 5 to determine the types of radiation described in. Problems in Appendix A problem 5,Extension 124 Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms. Begin to extend students under,standing of wave particle duality. by explaining that not only do M EETING I NDIVIDUAL N EEDS. waves have a particle nature but,moving particles have a wave Gifted. nature a concept students will Have capable students research and perhaps emitted light can be gathered by a. learn more about in the next explain to the class how astrophysicists telescope and analyzed From the atomic. section determine what elements make up Earth s emission and absorption. P spectra of the, Sun and other stars In general because a light the elements present in the star can. star is made up of hot glowing gases its be determined L3. Atomic Emission Spectra, Have you ever wondered how light is produced in the glowing tubes of neon mini LAB. signs The process illustrates another phenomenon that cannot be explained. by the wave model of light The light of the neon sign is produced by pass Purpose. ing electricity through a tube filled with neon gas Neon atoms in the tube Students will observe and record. absorb energy and become excited These excited and unstable atoms then the colors of light emitted when. release energy by emitting light If the light emitted by the neon is passed. certain compounds are burned in, through a glass prism neon s atomic emission spectrum is produced The a flame. atomic emission spectrum of an element is the set of frequencies of the elec. tromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of the element Neon s atomic emission Process Skills. spectrum consists of several individual lines of color not a continuous range Classifying comparing and. of colors as seen in the visible spectrum contrasting observing and infer. Each element s atomic emission spectrum is unique and can be used to deter ring predicting. mine if that element is part of an unknown compound For example when a. platinum wire is dipped into a strontium nitrate solution and then inserted into Safety Precautions. a burner flame the strontium atoms emit a characteristic red color You can Remind students to use caution. perform a series of flame tests yourself by doing the miniLAB below. with the flame Although the wet, Figure 5 9 on the following page shows an illustration of the characteris. tic purple pink glow produced by excited hydrogen atoms and the visible por swab will not burn very easily. tion of hydrogen s emission spectrum responsible for producing the glow have a beaker of tap water set out. Note how the line nature of hydrogen s atomic emission spectrum differs from for students to drop the hot cotton. that of a continuous spectrum To gain firsthand experience with types of line swabs into this will decrease the. spectra you can perform the CHEMLAB at the end of this chapter fire hazard. Swabs should be thrown in the,miniLAB trash Remind students not to throw. swabs into the sink Teachers,Flame Tests Flame Test Results. should check local regulations to, Classifying When certain compounds are Compound Flame color. determine if the chemicals used in,heated in a flame they emit a distinctive color. The color of the emitted light can be used to, Lithium chloride the lab are permitted in the school. identify the compound Sodium chloride trash If they are not waste chemi. Potassium chloride cals must be sent to a landfill site. Materials Bunsen burner cotton swabs 6 dis, tilled water crystals of lithium chloride sodium approved for the disposal of chem. Calcium chloride, chloride potassium chloride calcium chloride ical and hazardous wastes. strontium chloride unknown Strontium chloride,Teaching Strategies. Darken the room as much as, 1 Dip a cotton swab into the distilled water Dip the unknown crystals Record the color of the possible so that the flame colors. the moistened swab into the lithium chloride flame produced by the unknown crystals in can be seen vividly. so that a few of the crystals stick to the cotton your data table Dispose of used cotton swabs. Put the crystals on the swab into the flame of as directed by your teacher Expected Results. a Bunsen burner Observe the color of the, flame and record it in your data table Analysis Compound Flame. 2 Repeat step 1 for each of the metallic chlorides 1 Each of the known compounds tested contains color. sodium chloride potassium chloride calcium chlorine yet each compound produced a flame. chloride and strontium chloride Be sure to of a different color Explain why this occurred lithium chloride red. record the color of each flame in your data 2 How is the atomic emission spectrum of an ele sodium chloride yellow. table ment related to these flame tests, 3 Obtain a sample of unknown crystals from your 3 What is the identity of the unknown crystals potassium chloride violet. teacher Repeat the procedure in step 1 using Explain how you know. calcium chloride red orange,strontium chloride bright red. 5 1 Light and Quantized Energy 125 unknown depends on. Analysis Assessment, 1 The colors are due primarily to electron Performance Have students look. transitions of the metal atoms The colors,at the flame color spectra using a Flinn. are characteristic of lithium sodium potas,C Spectra or a spectroscope and relate the. sium calcium and strontium,spectra to the elements comprising each. 2 The colors are a composite of each compound Use the Performance Task. element s visible spectrum, Assessment List for Analyzing the Data in Pages 124 125. 3 Answers will vary depending on the iden PASC p 27 L2 1 A 2 B 2 E 3 C 3 E 5 A. tity of the unknown sample,Reinforce the concept that red light. has less energy than blue light,Explaining that you are making a Slit Prism. solution of a fluorescent substance,prepare a solution of about 10 g. fluorescein in 100 mL water in a,150 mL beaker Turn out the room. lights and shine a flashlight s beam,through a transparent red cello. phane sheet into the fluorescein 410 434 486 656,nm nm nm nm. solution When you turn out the,flashlight the solution will not Hydrogen gas. fluoresce Then repeat the process discharge tube nm 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750. but use a blue cellophane sheet Hydrogen s atomic emission spectrum. rather than a red one The solution,will fluoresce when you turn out Figure 5 9. the light Ask students to explain An atomic emission spectrum is characteristic of the element being. The atomic emission spectrum of, the results The blue light waves hydrogen consists of four dis examined and can be used to identify that element The fact that only cer. have a higher frequency shorter tinct colored lines of different tain colors appear in an element s atomic emission spectrum means that. frequencies This type of spec, wavelength and greater energy trum is also known as a line. only certain specific frequencies of light are emitted And because those. than the red light waves The spectrum Which line has the emitted frequencies of light are related to energy by the formula Ephoton h. P highest energy it can be concluded that only photons having certain specific energies are. solution may be flushed down, emitted This conclusion was not predicted by the laws of classical physics. the drain with water, known at that time Scientists found atomic emission spectra puzzling. because they had expected to observe the emission of a continuous series. CHEMLAB of colors and energies as excited electrons lost energy and spiraled toward. the nucleus In the next section you will learn about the continuing devel. ChemLab 5 located at the end of opment of atomic models and how one of those models was able to account. the chapter can be used at this for the frequencies of the light emitted by excited atoms. point in the lesson,Assessment,Section 5 1 Assessment. Knowledge Ask students, 7 List the characteristic properties of all waves At 11 Thinking Critically Explain how Einstein uti. to compare the wavelengths what speed do electromagnetic waves travel in a lized Planck s quantum concept in explaining the. frequencies and energies of vacuum photoelectric effect. microwaves and X rays 8 Compare the wave and particle models of light 12 Interpreting Scientific Illustrations Use. Microwaves have longer wave What phenomena can only be explained by the Figure 5 5 and your knowledge of light to match. lengths lower frequencies and particle model the numbered items on the right with the lettered. lower energies than X rays L2 9 What is a quantum of energy Explain how quanta items on the left The numbered items may be. of energy are involved in the amount of energy used more than once or not at all. matter gains and loses a longest wavelength 1 gamma rays. Figure Caption Question, 10 Explain the difference between the continuous b highest frequency 2 infrared waves. Figure 5 9 Which line has the spectrum of white light and the atomic emission c greatest energy 3 radio waves. highest energy the violet line spectrum of an element. 126 Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms,Section 5 1 LS,Assessment. 7 speed wavelength frequency and photoelectric effect the color of specific colors. amplitude EM waves travel at c hot objects and emission spectra 11 Einstein proposed that electromag. 8 The wave model treats light as an 9 A quantum is the minimum amount netic radiation has a wave particle. electromagnetic wave The particle of energy that can be lost or gained nature that the energy of a. model treats light as being by an atom Matter loses or gains photon depends on the frequency. comprised of photons The wave energy in multiples of the quantum of the radiation and that the. model could not explain the 10 A continuous spectrum contains all photon s energy is given by the. the visible colors an atomic emis formula Ephoton h.
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