41 High Speed Rail En 101006 European Commission-Free Books

41 High speed rail EN 101006 European Commission
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This brochure is based largely on European high speed rail An easy way to connect a study into the. development and future prospects of the high speed trans European rail network This study which was. commissioned by the European Commission was completed in March 2009 by MVV Consulting and Tractebel. Engineering, Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers. to your questions about the European Union,Freephone number. 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11, Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers. or these calls may be billed, More information on the European Union is available on the Internet http europa eu. Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg Publications Office of the European Union 2010. ISBN 978 92 79 13620 7,doi 10 2768 17821,European Union 2010.
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Cover photo Eurostar Group Ltd, Photos courtesy of Adif Eurostar Group Ltd Ferrovie dello stato iStockphoto. Reporters Shutterstock European Union,Printed in Belgium. PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE FREE PAPER, The European Union is committed to making the transport of goods and the mobility of. people more secure more efficient and more environmentally friendly with priority given. to social and territorial cohesion as well as to economic dynamism Looking ahead to the. near future I envisage a transport system that closely meets the needs of its users that is fast. and intelligent but that minimises its environmental impact The use of high speed trains. shows how this vision for the future can be made a reality today thanks to the combined. efforts of the Member States partners from the industry and the financial support from. Several economic and cultural centres in Europe can already be reached by trains travelling. at speeds of 300 km h and sometimes more This includes cities such as London Paris. Brussels Frankfurt Amsterdam Barcelona Madrid Rome and Milan The development of. further connections remains a key priority of several European programmes such as the. trans European transport network TEN T Completion of these projects will soon give the Union and its citizens a true. high speed rail network that will allow its users to travel in conditions of improved comfort and safety while at the same time. reducing their impact on the environment, This success also demonstrates our extraordinary capacity for innovation which allows us to create competitive and inter. operable systems of real technological excellence that support the development of our economy European competitiveness. is built on strengths such as know how expertise and innovation and I look forward to the new export possibilities that will. open up for our companies The fact that European standards are being used for high speed railways in China in Latin. America in the United States and in Morocco is recognition of the level of excellence in Europe and signals a new era for. sustainable transport and mobility 1,Siim Kallas,Vice President of the European Commission.
Commissioner in charge of mobility and transport,1 Introduction 4. 2 The high speed network and citizens 5,2 1 Development of a truly European network 5. 2 2 Advantages for passengers 6, 2 3 Link with trans European transport network TEN T policy 7 3. 2 4 Growing demand 8, 2 5 Competitiveness with other modes of transport 8. 3 A tool at the service of European transport policy 12. 3 1 Trans European transport network policy and investments 12. 3 2 Territorial cohesion and regional planning 12,3 3 Security and interoperability 13.
3 4 Intermodality and co modality 14,3 5 Making transport more ecological 15. 3 6 Competitiveness and standard of service 16,4 A technological and commercial success 17. 4 1 Speed records and technology applied 17, 4 2 Research and development at the service of HSLs 18. 4 3 Commercial expansion 19,4 4 A world market 19,5 The future 20. 5 1 Market developments 20,5 2 Network expansion 21.
1 INTRODUCTION, High speed lines HSLs offer European citizens a safe fast transport which would not guzzle fossil fuels Italy was the. comfortable and ecological mode of transport A high speed first European country to inaugurate an HSL on the Direttis. train is a train capable of reaching speeds of over 200 km h sima line between Florence and Rome in 1977 but it was. on upgraded conventional lines and of over 250 km h on new France that led the technological boom introducing the first. lines designed specifically for high speeds Today trains high speed train HST nicknamed Rail Concorde between. running on the most recently installed lines can reach speeds Paris and Lyon in September 1981 Germany joined the ven. of 360 km h while trains running on upgraded conventional ture at the beginning of the 1990s with the Intercity Express. 4 lines can reach speeds of up to 250 km h ICE followed shortly by Spain which introduced the Alta. Velocidad Espa ola AVE in 1992 At the end of 2009 Europe. HSLs have truly revolutionised sustainable mobility by had 6 214 km of high speed lines on which trains could run. allowing a significant increase in the speed and frequency at speeds in excess of 250 km h. of journeys between the major European cities This cutting. edge infrastructure illustrates the Union s immense capacity There are currently different technical standards on the HSL. for technological innovation and the vitality of European European network and this generates significant extra costs. industry which is constantly developing new systems espe The huge potential of HSLs in terms of mobility throughout the. cially in terms of rolling stock The reduced travelling times continent has still not been fully exploited That is why the Euro. higher levels of passenger comfort and low environmental pean Union is promoting a pan European HSL network In order. impact enable HSLs to compete with and complement road to do so it is issuing common technical and quality standards. and air travel thereby helping to implement viable mobility for all Member States It is also establishing a framework for the. at European level development and implementation of standardised tools such. as the European rail traffic management system ERTMS It is. The development of high speed rail travel took off after the being assisted in this by the European Railway Agency ERA. 1974 petrol crisis Faced with Europe s energy dependency the body responsible for helping to integrate the European rail. and concomitant threats in terms of mobility several Euro networks by improving rail safety and allowing trains to cross. pean countries decided to develop a new fast mode of borders within the EU without having to stop. 2 THE HIGH SPEED NETWORK AND CITIZENS, 2 1 Development of a truly European network to lay some 10 000 km of HSLs between now and 2020 so as. to ensure that 90 of its inhabitants have an HST station. The European HSL network is expanding constantly The within 50 km of their home With its network saturated in the. United Kingdom Sweden and Germany have upgraded large south of the country Sweden plans to construct a completely. sections of their conventional network so that they can be new HS line between Stockholm and Gothenburg This line. used by high speed trains The opening in November 2007 which will be restricted to passenger trains will provide bet. of the second section of the Channel Tunnel to St Pancras line ter services to numerous towns between the two principal. is just one of many examples HSL construction projects are Swedish cities This project forms part of a global project 5. proliferating elsewhere in Europe The Belgian HSL network which is designed to improve rail capacity in Sweden by con. has plans to expand with the Diabolo line to improve rail structing new lines and renovating existing lines This action. access to Brussels National Airport and France has plans to is being taken in spite of the climate and terrain in Scandinavia. double the HS lines between Paris and Lyon Spain has plans which make it very difficult to set up railway infrastructure. Increase in HSLs in km 1985 2009, 1985 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009. NB Only lines or sections of lines on which trains can exceed speeds of 250 km h are included. Sources International Union of Railways UIC High Speed Department national sources. HIGH SPEED EUROPE,Europe aims to use 2 2 Advantages for passengers. the trans European, transport network High speed trains provide unsurpassed passenger comfort.
TEN T to link all HSLs The layout of the compartments the interior fittings of the. on the continent into carriages and even the lighting have been designed to cre. a proper integrated ate a comfortable and pleasant space suitable both for work. European high speed and relaxation Passengers have a great deal of personal space. network The liberalisa with access to more and more services such as Internet. tion of the mainline interna power sockets for their electronic equipment headrests and. tional passenger railway folding tables They can also walk around on board and there. market on 1 January 2010 will also are restaurant cars serving food and drinks Unlike on aircraft. allow operators to compete and offer the use of mobile telephones is not prohibited however it is. users a wider range of transport options confined to dedicated spaces between carriages in order to. avoid disturbance to other passengers Particular attention. The first trans European HSL between Paris has also been paid to access to compartments by reducing. Brussels Cologne Amsterdam and London is already close the gap in height between the train and the platform. to completion This network which is used by several rail. operators Thalys Eurostar Deutsche Bahn NS Highspeed European standards are gradually being established both to. will significantly cut journey times between major German ensure greater compatibility between trains and lines and to. Belgian French Dutch and British cities The ERTMS will ensure that carriages comply with important quality stand. guarantee that the system is fully interoperable In January ards especially in terms of safety and environmental impact. 2008 the International Union of Railways UIC had registered. 1 050 HS carriages in service in Europe Multimodal railway stations in city centres provide quick easy. access to the rail network The development of HSLs has. consistently cut journey times between various urban and. economic centres in the Union At present London is 2 hours. 15 minutes from Paris and 1 hour 51 minutes from Brussels. and Brussels is 3 hours 15 minutes from Frankfurt This com. 6 pares with 5 hours 12 minutes from London to Paris 4 hours. 52 minutes from London to Brussels and 5 hours from Brus. Journey times between stations 1989 2009 sels to Frankfurt in 1989. The advantages of HSLs in terms of frequent connections. London Amsterdam which can easily be modified depending on demand and. flexibility for passengers have allowed the railways to com. 1 51 3 18 pete more effectively against other modes of transport Since. 4 52 5 16 1 53 2 39 1997 over 6 million passengers a year have been using the. Brussels Paris HSL As a result flights have been cut back on. K ln this route 1,2 15 Brussels 1 47,2 25 3 14 3 15 2 10. 3 48 Frankfurt,3 55 Saarbr cken,Strasbourg,Times 2009. 1 Trans European Transport Network Executive Agency Priority Project 2 High speed railway axis Paris Bruxelles Brussel K ln. Amsterdam London PBKAL http tentea ec europa eu en ten t projects 30 priority projects priority project 2. A SUS TAINABLE LINK BE T WEEN CI T IZENS,2 3 Link with trans European transport. network TEN T policy, The programme for the trans European transport network. TEN T as introduced under the Treaty of Maastricht and. defined in Decision 1692 96 EC in 1996 2 is designed to. guarantee optimum mobility and coherence between the. various modes of transport in the Union The main priorities. of this policy which accounts for a large part of the White. Paper on transport policy in the EU 3 are to establish the key. links needed to facilitate transport optimise the capacity. of existing infrastructure produce specifications for network. interoperability and integrate the environmental dimension. The TEN T focuses very closely on the development of high. speed transport Of the 30 priority projects put forward under. this programme no fewer than 14 concern high speed lines. The new Lyon Trieste Diva a Koper Ljubljana Budapest. Ukrainian border railway axis the new high speed railway axis. in south west Europe and the integration of the high speed. rail network on the Iberian peninsula into the European. network are just a few examples of TEN T projects supported. by the European Union The development of the European. Rail Traffic Management System ERTMS is also one of the. projects that receives serious funding as part of the imple. mentation of the TEN T, TEN T axes and priority projects relating wholly or partly to HSLs.
Axis Title,Project No, 1 Railway axis Berlin Verona Milan Bologna Naples Messina Palermo. 2 High speed railway axis Paris Brussels Cologne Amsterdam London. 3 High speed railway axis of south west Europe,4 High speed railway axis east. 6 Railway axis Lyon Trieste Diva a Koper Diva a Ljubljana Budapest Ukrainian border. 12 Nordic Triangle railway road axis,14 West coast main line. 16 Freight railway axis Sines Algeciras Madrid Paris. 17 Railway axis Paris Strasbourg Stuttgart Vienna Bratislava. 19 High speed rail interoperability in the Iberian peninsula. 20 Railway axis Fehmarn belt, 22 Railway axis Athens Sofia Budapest Vienna Prague Nuremberg Dresden. 24 Railway axis Lyon Genoa Basel Duisburg Rotterdam Antwerp. 28 Eurocaprail on the Brussels Luxembourg Strasbourg railway axis. 2 Decision 1692 96 EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 1996 on Community guidelines. for the development of the trans European transport network OJ L 228 9 9 1996. 3 White Paper European transport policy for 2010 time to decide. http ec europa eu transport white paper documents doc lb texte complet fr pdf. HIGH SPEED EUROPE,2 4 Growing demand, Since high speed lines were introduced the number of pas.
sengers opting for this mode of transport has constantly. increased The number of passengers on all German,Belgian Spanish French Italian and British lines. increased from 15 2 billion passenger kilometres,in 1990 to 92 33 billion in 2008. The continuous development of efficient inter,operable control management tools allows. infrastructure capacity to be increased while,guaranteeing high safety standards It is pos. sible today to route a train on an HSL every,four to five minutes.
2 5 Competitiveness with,other modes of transport,Expansion of the HSL network has breathed. new life into rail transport in terms of compet,ing with other modes of transport Today high. speed trains account for approximately 40 of,traffic over medium distances and even more on. certain routes such as London Paris Paris Brussels. and Madrid Seville It is in fact on journeys which take. under three hours that HS trains are most competitive. access time is much shorter than by air and journey times are. 8 shorter than by car, Increase in number of HS passenger kilometres pkm in Europe 1990 2008 in billion pkm. 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008. NB Figures refer to all traffic using high speed rolling stock. Sources International Union of Railways UIC national statistics estimates. A SUS TAINABLE LINK BE T WEEN CI T IZENS, In 2007 passengers on all European rail networks travelled an HS snow train overnight services car trains etc The Euro.
average of 372 km on high speed lines HSLs are preferred pean Union is using the TEN T programme to encourage. over air and road travel for journeys of between 400 and cooperation between rail companies airlines and road trans. 800 km At below 150 km they offer a limited bonus com port operators in order to foster synergies between these. pared with road or conventional rail travel Between 150 and different sectors and optimise the integration of transport at. 400 km travel by rail on both HS and conventional lines European level This approach will improve transport energy. is quickest Above 900 km air travel gains the upper hand use which in turn will generate environmental advantages. except for journeys on which rail offers specific advantages. Journey times v distance for rail HS and conventional lines and air transport. High speed rail fastest,High speed necessary for rail to be fastest. Door to door journey time hours,0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000. Distance km,High speed rail,Conventional rail, Source High speed rails international comparisons Steer Davies Gleave Commission for Integrated Transport London 2004. HIGH SPEED EUROPE,Paris Lille at the heart of,the European HSL network. The 333 km North HSL which opened in 1993 links Paris to the. Belgian border and to the Channel Tunnel via Lille Trains in com. mercial service are capable of speeds of up to 300 km h which has. considerably improved rail journey times between Paris and Lille. The extension of this line northwards to Belgium and the United. Kingdom and southwards via the HSL Interconnexion Est makes it. a key link in the European high speed rail network Lille is one of the. main winners from this project as it now sits at the crossroads of Europe. in the centre of the Brussels London Paris triangle Euralille has become. the third biggest business centre in France in just over a decade. Frankfurt Cologne an HSL restricted to passenger services. As of 2002 the 177 km Cologne Frankfurt HSL has set the journey time between these two cities at 1 hour. 10 minutes It now takes no more than an hour to reach Frankfurt International Airport from Cologne This is. a unique case in a network basically designed for mixed passenger freight traffic it is restricted to passenger. traffic due to its steep gradient 4 It links Rhine Ruhr and Rhine Main two of the most urbanised regions. of Germany which are home to some 15 million people The engineers applied important technical innova. tions in order to build this line For example the tracks were laid on concrete slabs rather than on ballast and. the trains use magnetic eddy current brakes,Turin Milan Naples linking north and south.
The Italian HSL network which was inaugurated in 1977 with the Direttissima line between Florence and Rome. was extended in 2005 06 with the Rome Naples and Turin Novara lines The opening of the Milan Bologna. and Naples Salerno lines in 2008 increased the AV AC Alta velocit Alta capacit network to over 900 km. With motorway interconnections at numerous points the Italian HSL is the backbone of the transport network. linking the north and south of Italy It also forms part of the north south rail corridor linking Berlin and. Palermo and is a top priority project under the trans European transport network programme. Madrid Barcelona journey time 2 hours 38 minutes, The Madrid Barcelona HSL was opened in February 2008 This new 621 km line reduced the journey time. between the two cities from 7 hours on a Talgo train in 1996 to 2 hours 38 minutes In time this line will be. extended towards France via the Perpignan Figueras cross border tunnel linking Spain to the trans European. HSL network The Madrid Barcelona line will also help to relieve pressure on the saturated air route between. the two cities After a year in service Renfe Red Nacional de Ferrocarriles Espa oles has captured 40 of. the traffic between Madrid and Barcelona,A SUS TAINABLE LINK BE T WEEN CI T IZENS. EU high speed railways categories I II and III in 2010. STOCKHOLM TALLINN,K BENHAVN MINSK,DUBLIN Liverpool 11. Birmingham,AMSTERDAM BERLIN,Antwerpen Halle,BRUSSEL Wroclaw. Frankfurt am Main PRAHA,LUXEMBOURG,PARIS N rnberg,Metz Karlsruhe.
Nancy Stuttgart WIEN BRATISLAVA,Tours M nchen,Basel Kufstein. BERN Bolzano,Limoges Lyon BUCURESTI,Milano ZAGREB BEOGRAD. Bordeaux Torino Verona,Santiago SARAJEVO,De Compostela Bilbao Toulouse Genova Bologna. Dax Montpellier SOFIA,Porto Perpignan Marseille SKOPJE. Salamanca Valladolid,Zaragoza Figueres,Aveiro ROMA TIRANA.
LISBOA Toledo,C rdoba ATHINAI,Ronda Granada,Completed Under construction Planned. Category I Category I Category I,0 300 600 Category II Category II Category II. Category III Category III Category III,Administrative land accounting units. GISCO Database Eurostat,Cartography European Commission 20 November 2008. 3 A TOOL AT THE SERVICE,OF EUROPEAN TRANSPORT POLICY.
3 1 Trans European transport network 3 2 Territorial cohesion. policy and investments and regional planning, According to recent forecasts by the European Commission HSLs help not only to increase mobility between major urban. European demand for transport is expected to increase by economic centres in the EU but also to improve services to. 25 for passenger transport and by 29 for freight transport the intermediate towns crossed by high speed trains The. 12 between now and 2020 reference year 2000 This highlights speed of high speed rail transport therefore helps to increase. the importance of the Community trans European transport the mobility of passengers and freight and to create a feeling. network TEN T programme Facilitating passenger and of proximity within the Union. freight mobility by developing and upgrading an integrated. transport infrastructure throughout Europe and complying The positive impact of the HSL network on certain sectors. with strict safety and quality standards is a key objective in such as the high tech or upscale tertiary service sectors helps. safeguarding the competitiveness of the Union That is why to boost economic specialisation in the regions concerned. the TEN T programme also plays a key role in the Europe 2020 and to improve complementarity between the various eco. strategy for smart sustainable and inclusive growth nomic centres in Europe This is without doubt of benefit to. Europe s competitiveness at international level, The cost of implementing the entire TEN T is estimated at. around EUR 900 billion between 1996 and 2020 4 As far as Connecting a station to the HSL network may influence the. high speed rail is concerned 14 priority projects 5 have been entire urban development of the surrounding district. launched to develop new lines and or upgrade existing ones The district of King s Cross in London will certainly experience. at a cost of some EUR 269 billion between 1996 and 2020 far reaching changes following the inauguration of the inter. The European Union is giving financial support to these national station at St Pancras Planning permission covering. projects via the TEN T budget the Structural Fund the Cohe a 75 hectare site was granted in 2006 for the restoration. sion Fund and the European Investment Bank EIB of 20 historic buildings and the construction of 25 office. blocks 20 access roads and 10 public spaces In France this. In the past a large number of European HSLs were financed has also applied to HST stations opened on the outskirts of. by the public sector This was true of France for the South cities They have fostered the creation of satellite cities such. East Mediterranean European East and Rhine Rh ne HSLs as at the Avignon HST station in Courtine where a HST busi. Belgium Germany Spain and Italy These projects were sup ness centre is to be developed. ported at national level with help from the European Union. via the budget allocated to the TEN T and or via the Struc. tural Fund and the Cohesion Fund The EIB also contributed. towards the development of the network by granting loans. 4 European Commission Mobility and Transport DG Transport infrastructure http ec europa eu transport infrastructure index en htm. 5 TEN T policy includes a total of 30 priority projects at an overall cost of some EUR 415 billion between 1996 and 2020. A SUS TAINABLE LINK BE T WEEN CI T IZENS, Changes in passenger stations 3 3 Security and interoperability. High speed trains are one of the safest means of transport. Railway and station act as a barrier Various systems are used to guarantee optimum safety There. are systems to transmit speed limits to the driver at very high. speeds the driver can no longer read trackside signals. correctly However in the past these systems were dev. eloped at national level by specific manufacturers and are not. compatible with one another, Therefore trains need to be fitted with several systems if they. Industrial or Traditional are to cross borders For example Thalys trains operating. backstreet area city centre between France Benelux and Germany need to be fitted with. seven different signalling systems As France Germany and. Belgium have sections of conventional lines and sections of. high speed lines in succession two control systems are. needed for each country,Railway station, These multiple train control systems underline the importance.
of the interoperability of the HS network being promoted and. implemented by the European Railway Agency ERA Direc. tive 2008 57 EC 6 defines interoperability as the ability of. Railway station interconnects and becomes the new centre the trans European high speed rail system to allow the safe. and uninterrupted movement of high speed trains which. accomplish the specified levels of performance This ability. rests on all the regulatory technical and operational conditions. which must be met in order to satisfy essential requirements. in terms of safety reliability and availability health environ. mental protection and technical compatibility 7 In other 13. words interoperability does not only concern management and. signalling systems All aspects of rail transport are concerned. from infrastructure e g bridge headroom standardised. gauge through energy e g electrification system to passen. ger services e g information systems reservation methods. maintenance e g system to cut maintenance costs and rolling. stock e g engines,New city centre, The ERTMS rail traffic management system is one of. Source Presentation to the sixth UIC High Speed Rail Congress the tools co financed by the European Union to. The high speed railway station of the future How to achieve it. meet the demand for interoperability The ERTMS, Ir Rudolf Mulder DHV presentation date 17 to 19 March 2008. comprises the wireless global system for mobile,communications railways GSM R and the. European train control system ETCS and has been,designed and implemented under the aegis of the. European Railway Agency ERA see box on page 14,This unique system helps to make European HSLs.
interoperable and optimise rail traffic management. along international corridors Rollout of the ERTMS. started in 2005 on various HSLs Rome Naples,followed by Madrid Lerida In time the ERTMS will. be deployed over the entire European network, thereby reducing significantly the costs generated. by multiple management and signalling systems, 6 Directive 2008 57 EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the interoperability of the rail system within. the Community recast OJ L 191 18 7 2008, 7 Council Directive 96 48 EC of 23 July 1996 on the interoperability of the trans European high speed rail system OJ L 235 17 9 1996.


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